Archive for the ‘Laser Eye surgery’ Category

5 Signs You Are Ready for LASIK

Friday, May 18th, 2018

Millions of people live free from the hassle of glasses or contact lenses, thanks to LASIK. If you have worn visual aids for most of your life, you may be interested in LASIK but hesitant about undergoing the surgical procedure. Perhaps the idea of surgery makes you nervous, or you don’t know if you’re ready. In this post, the team at Bochner Eye Institute reveals five crucial indications that you may be ready to take the plunge. (more…)

Bochner Establishes a Complimentary Keratoconus Clinic

Thursday, August 24th, 2017


Patients with keratoconus or suspected keratoconus require corneal imaging to show anterior curvature, anterior elevation, posterior elevation, and pachymetry. Sophisticated corneal tomography and topography imaging allows for an early diagnosis of keratoconus and follow-up examinations can document stability or progressive disease.

At Bochner, our Keratoconus Clinic allows us to devise and review with patients and referring doctors a detailed treatment plan. Treatment options depend on a patient’s age, level of best-corrected spectacle acuity and uncorrected acuity, dioptric difference across a cornea, pachymetry, corneal curvature, and/or the presence of any significant corneal scarring. We have developed a decision tree that guides our recommendations on the following clinical options:

  1. Corneal crosslinking to stabilize a cornea.
  2. Corneal crosslinking + Topography-guided PRK to stabilize a cornea and improve best-corrected spectacle acuity by reducing irregular astigmatism.
  3. Corneal crosslinking + Intracorneal rings to allow enhanced contact lens wear in corneas too thin for Topography-guided PRK.
  4. Toric implantable contact lens to enhance uncorrected acuity.
  5. PRK and limited corneal crosslinking to improve uncorrected acuity.
  6. RGP, hybrid, or scleral lenses to improve best-corrected acuity.

Laser Cataract Surgery


Since acquiring the first Catalys femtosecond laser in Canada 5 years ago the percentage of patients choosing this advanced technology has continued to increase. One-hundred percent of the 34 Ophthalmologists and optometrists that have undergone cataract surgery at Bochner since 2012 have opted for laser surgery versus traditional surgery.

Our top 4 advantages of Laser Cataract Surgery versus Traditional Surgery are as follows:
Reduction or Elimination of Phacoemulsification Energy Traditional phacoemulsification utilizes a probe that vibrates 20,000 times per minute to break up a cataract. This is similar to a jack hammer breaking up cement. In the eye this energy can cause intraocular inflammation and loss of corneal endothelial cells. With the Catalys laser 85% of our cataract cases are now accomplished without any phacoemulsification. In the remaining 15% of cases, the energy from phacoemulsification is greatly reduced. Elimination or reduction of phacoemulsification is possible because of the unique laser fragmentation of the Catalys laser that softens a wide area of the lens.
Accurate and Consistent Capsulorehexis A 5 mm capsulorehexis performed with the Catalys laser is accomplished in 1.6 seconds. This quick speed is important to decrease the chance of any radial tears that could lead to rupture of the posterior capsule and loss of the nucleus into the vitreous. In over 2,700 eyes treated at Bochner, we have only seen one radial tear.
Capsulorehexis Centred Over the Visual Axis The Catalys identifies the visual axis and can create a perfectly round capsulorehexis centered over this point. The surgeon then aligns the centre of the implant over the visual axis, which allows for a small amount of anterior capsule covering the implant. Centration of an implant on the visual axis can decrease the induction of higher order aberrations with aspheric and toric implants and improves patient satisfaction with multifocal implants.
Laser Astigmatism ReductionAstigmatism reduction with laser arcuate cuts has been shown to be more predictable than with a hand held blade. The laser can produce cuts at an exact depth, angle, length, and location. Laser arcuate incisions can be opened by the surgeon at the time of surgery or if combined with a toric implant the incisions can be opened if necessary postoperatively to fine tune the outcome.
Read article by Dr Gifford-Jones in Toronto Sun (July 2017): When You Need Cataract Surgery – Dr Gifford-Jones


Keratoconus & Cataract Clinics
– Contact Information –
Our Toronto, Scarborough, and Unionville Offices now offer Keratoconus and Cataract Clinics, in addition to consultations for Laser Vision Correction, Refractive Lens Exchange, and other refractive procedures. Referrals can be mailed, faxed or emailed. Our Oakville Office is limited at this time to general medical ophthalmology referrals.

40 Prince Arthur Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5R 1A9
Phone 416 960 2020
Fax 416 966 8917

2941 Lawrence Ave East, Scarborough, ON M1P 2V6
Phone 416 431 7449
Fax 416 439 9523

147 Main Street, Unionville, ON L3R 2G8
Phone 905 470 2020
Fax 905 470 2216

353 Iroquois Shore Road, Oakville, ON L6H 1M3
Phone 905 815 1112
Fax 905 845 7828

Over 20 Years of Laser Vision Correction at Bochner Eye Institute

Monday, May 20th, 2013

Laser vision correction has been the most common and successful refractive procedure in North America over the past 2 decades. Clinical outcomes have been excellent when respecting the indications and contraindications of the procedure, utilizing advanced technology, surgical competence, and careful follow-up care. After more than 20 years of performing laser vision correction at the Bochner Eye Institute, this is my top list of factors to ensure outstanding patient outcomes:

1. Rule out keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration (PPMD)
LASIK is a contraindication in eyes with keratoconus and PPMD. Creating a flap in a structurally weak cornea can lead to cornea ectasia. There are many clinical signs of keratoconus and PPMD but the most helpful involve topographical and pachymetry imaging utilizing Pentacam technology. Findings of clinical value include: A. Inferior to superior steepening of greater than 1.6 D; B. Central steepening of 48 D or greater; C. Elevation of posterior cornea of 17 microns or greater; and D. Area of corneal thinning that corresponds to the area of anterior and posterior corneal elevation.

2. Rule out dry eyes
Dry eye syndrome especially with a superficial punctate keratopathy can delay the visual recovery. Patients with severe dry eyes should not undergo laser vision correction. Patients with mild to moderate dry eyes if treated aggressively preoperatively may be satisfactory candidates for LASIK. Dry eye treatments may include preservative-free artificial tears, oral omega fatty acids, lubricating gels or ointments, Restasis drops, hot compresses to the lids if plugged meibomian glands, or the Lipiflow procedure. Bochner Eye established a Dry Eye Clinic to try to rehabilitate patients and enhance their comfort and visual function.

3. Femtosecond flap creation
Femtosecond technology has revolutionized the safety of LASIK. The creation of a thin flap that has the same thickness in the centre and periphery reduces the risk of serious complications. Unfortunately discount laser centres continue to utilize a mechanical microkeratome that exposes patients to significantly higher risks. Femtosecond lasers have eliminated the risks associated with mechanical micrkeratomes, which include: button holes, free flaps without a hinge, partial flaps, and irregular flaps.

4. Surgical competence
Although excimer lasers and the creation of femtosecond flaps have added some automation to the procedure there are many steps that require surgical care. A skilled surgeon will insure proper centration of the corneal flap, a dry corneal bed prior to and during the excimer ablation, satisfactory patient fixation during the excimer ablation, minimal irrigation beneath the flap, and careful repositioning of the corneal flap.

5. Postoperative care
Although complications are uncommon using advanced technology, the identification of any early complications and proper management can insure an excellent outcome. Most early complications include visually significant striae, diffuse lamellar keratitis, and an epithelial defect. The rare complications are microbial keratitis and corneal ectasia. If the refractive outcome is not satisfactory then an enhancement can be performed. It is typically best to wait at least 4 months for an enhancement to ensure refractive stability.

6. Maintenance and Calibration of Equipment
A laser centre must insure proper calibration and maintenance of all the equipment. Excimer laser and femtosecond technology require frequent maintenance checks to be sure optimal function. A dedicated technical staff that is experienced with daily calibration of the equipment and ensures regular maintenance is critical to achieving outstanding results.

7. Communication between the surgeon and comanging doctor
Communication between the surgeon and comanging doctor about any patient concerns or general education concepts is vital for optimal care. At the Bochner Eye Institute, communication can be accomplished with a phone call, email, or fax.

8. Ability to customize excimer laser ablations using either topographically-linked, wavefront-guided, or wavefront-optimized techniques
The surgeon should be able to choose the right technology for the right patient to achieve the best possible outcome. Technology continues to advance with more sophisticated treatment options. When patients have any corneal irregularity, a topographically-linked ablation is the treatment of choice to smooth the corneal surface. Eight Pentacam images, representing 20,000 data points per image, are transferred to the excimer laser system and a customized laser ablation is performed. In addition, we now have the ability to centre the excimer ablation over the line-of sight and not the centre of the pupil using a topographically-linked ablation. We all recognize that a patient’s refractive error is aligned with the line-of sight, which is not necessarily the centre of the pupil. By performing the laser ablation over the line-of sight we can enhance the refractive accuracy especially in hyperopic patients.

9. Presbyopic Considerations
Understanding the patient’s lifestyle can allow one to customize the treatment. There are many options for the correction of presbyopia including reading glasses, monovision LASIK, KAMRA or other corneal inlays, monovision with an aspheric implant, or multifocal implant with refractive lens exchange. There are advantages and disadvantages to each option. Factors that can influence a presbyopic decision include the value of stereoscopic distance vision and/or stereoscopic near vision, early crystalline lens changes, requirements of night time driving, and personality traits that can play a role in dealing with any visual imperfections. At Bochner we explore all the presbyopic options with our patients before a decision is made for final treatment.

10. Realistic Patient Expectations
Although over 98% of patients undergoing LASIK at Bochner have excellent uncorrected visual acuity there are some patients that may require an enhancement. As we all know, laser surgery is performed on human tissue and not on a piece of plastic. As a consequence there can be an individual variation in outcome as a result of the laser interaction with the cornea, as well as a difference in postoperative healing. At the Bochner Eye Institute, laser enhancements are performed at no charge. This life-time warranty has been our policy for over 20 years.

By Dr Raymond Stein

Femtosecond Laser Cataract Surgery: Improving Precision, Improving Results

Friday, March 1st, 2013

Bochner Eye Institute Offering Laser Cataract Surgery in Toronto

Wednesday, September 12th, 2012

The most significant advance in cataract surgery in the past 50 years has been the development of laser cataract surgery. We are proud to be the first centre in Canada to offer laser cataract surgery with the CatalysTM precision laser system. Laser cataract surgery automates many of the steps that were previously performed manually with a forceps, needle, or blade. The precision of the laser allows for enhanced safety and outcomes.

Bladeless Laser Cataract Surgery has a number of unique advantages over traditional cataract Surgery:

  1. Better self-sealing incisions with less chance of leakage.
    The laser precisely creates all the necessary incisions in the cornea. Unlike with a hand-held blade used in traditional surgery, the laser incisions have a unique architecture and a more precise width that allow them to seal better.Masket S, Saraba M. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract incisions: architectural stability and reproducibility. J Cat & Refract Surg 2010:36:1048-1051
  2. Improved reduction of astigmatism and enhanced comfort.
    The laser incisions to reduce astigmatism are created at a precise location, length, depth, and angle based on intraoperative imaging using an OCT (optical coherence tomography). An OCT provides higher resolution than an MRI. The incisions are created below the corneal epithelium, which provides enhanced comfort. Limbal relaxing incisions with traditional surgery are performed with a hand-held blade.Kymionis G, Yoo S, Ide T, Culbertson W, Femtosecond-assisted astigmatic keratotomy J Cat & Refract Surg. 2010:35(1):11-13
  3. Potential for better refractive outcome and quality of vision
    The laser can create a perfectly round central opening in the anterior capsule of a specific size. The capsule opening can be centered over the visual axis. The intraocular lens is held in place with the remaining capsule. With a more precise capsule opening there is less chance that the intraocular implant will vault forward, backward, or be tilted. This has been shown to result in better quality of vision with a reduction in higher-order aberrations.Kranitz, K; Takacs, A ; Femtosecond Laser Capsulotomy and Manual Capsulorrhexis and Effects on Intraocular Lens Centration. J Refract Surg. 2011;27(8):558-563.
  4. Potential for clearer vision early postoperatively.

    The laser is used to fragment or break the cataract into small segments before being liquefied with ultrasound and removed with aspiration. The laser fragmentation results in a dramatic reduction in ultrasound energy by approximately 96%. This reduced energy is safer for the long-term health of the corneal endothelial cells and may lead to clearer vision in the early postoperative period.Naranjo-Tackman R. How a femtosceond laser increases safety and precision in cataract surgery. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2010

Laser cataract surgery is a revolutionary cataracts treatment that is safe and precise. The advent of this technology has made it possible for more patients to seek treatment and obtain clear vision, including patients with astigmatism. To learn more about laser cataract surgery or in Toronto, contact Raymond Stein MD at Bochner Eye Institute to schedule a comprehensive consultation with an experienced laser vision correction surgeon.

Celebrity Vision Correction Surgery performed by Dr Raymond Stein.

Tuesday, January 31st, 2012

Serena Ryder, Canada’s celebrity singer-songwriter, Juno award winner (2008, 2009, 2010) underwent successful vision correction surgery by Dr Raymond Stein at the Bochner Eye Institute.

See what Dr Raymond Stein patients are saying

Mr Don Cherry, Canada’s most celebrated hockey TV personality, undergoes vision correction surgery at the Bochner Eye Institute by Dr Raymond Stein

Monday, November 21st, 2011

Mr Don Cherry, Canada’s most celebrated hockey TV personality, undergoes laser vision correction surgery at the Bochner Eye Institute by Dr Raymond Stein


Femtosecond Laser for Creation of LASIK Flap

Friday, January 21st, 2011

Dr Raymond Stein of the Bochner Eye Institute wrote the following clinical update. We hope you find it of interest.

Many reports have demonstrated the superiority of Femtosecond laser created flaps over a microkeratome blade: increased flap thickness accuracy,1,2,3 greater consistency of flap thickness,4,5 the elimination of buttonhole flaps,1,6 decreased epithelial injury,4, 7, greater flap adhesion strength, 8 ,faster visual recovery and better uncorrected visual acuity,8,9 improved contrast sensitivity,10 better refractive astigmatic neutrality,5 decreased higher order aberrations,11 and decreased corneal insensitivity and tear function compromises.12,13

The laser flap has a uniform or planar thickness. A blade creates a meniscus flap which results in a thinner flap in the centre and thicker in the periphery. This can lead to one of the most dreaded LASIK complications of a button-hole. This can result in loss of best-corrected vision from irregular astigmatism or scar tissue. When we acquired a Femtosecond laser 4 years ago we thought initially we would offer both the Femtosecond and blade technologies. After doing our first cases we quickly sold our microkeratome. All prospective laser patients should be aware that the Femtosecond laser provides the most technologically advanced and safest procedure.

Why would some laser centres today offer inferior technology? The answer is very clear cost. The purchase of a Femtosecond laser costs around $500,000, there is an annual maintenance fee of around $70,000, and a disposable cost (suction ring) of approximately $200 per eye. A microkeratome can be purchased for $25,000 or less, there are no annual maintenance fees, and the cost of a blade is around $50 for both eyes. So you can see from a cost point of view there are significant savings to a laser centre to offer inferior technology with a microkeratome.

Femtosecond technology continues to advance. At the Bochner Eye Institute we acquired the first IFS laser in Canada, which has a speed of 150 KHz. This is 2.5 times faster than the previous laser technology. This results in the suction ring being on the eye for less time resulting in a more comfortable experience for the patient. In addition the new technology can create a flap edge greater than 100 degrees. This leads to a more stable flap position like a man-hole cover, and a lower incidence of epithelial ingrowth.

At the Bochner Eye Institute we continue to treat a significant number of eye-care professionals from across Canada and the United States. We feel this is because eye doctors understand leading edge technology and trust our surgical techniques and abilities.

1.Binder PS. Flap dimensions created with the Intralase FS Laser. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30:26-32.

2. Javaloy J, Vidal MT, Abdelrahman AM, Artola A, Alio JL. Confocal microscopy comparison of Intralase femtosecond laser and Moria M2 microkeratome in LASIK. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007; 23:178-187.

3. Patel SV, Maguire LJ, McLaren W, Hodge DO, Bourne WM. Femtosecond laser versus mechanical microkeratome for LASIK: a randomized controlled study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;114:1482-1490.

4. Kezirian GM, Stonecipher KG. Comparison of the Intralase femtosecond laser and mechanical keratomes for laser in situ keratomileusis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30:804-811.

5. Talamo JH, Meltzer J, Gardner J. Reproducibility of flap thickness with Intralase FS and Moria LSK-1 and M2 microkeratomes. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;22:556-561.

6. Binder PS. One thousand consecutive IntraLase laser in situ keratomileusis flaps. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:962-969.

7. Duffey RJ. Thin flap laser in situ keratomileusis: flap dimensions with the Moria LSK-One manual microkeratome using the 100-micron head. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005;31:1159-1162.

8. Knorz MC, Vossmerbaeumer U. Comparison of flap adhesion strength using the Amadeus microkeratome and the IntraLase IFS femtosecond laser in rabbits. J Refract Surg. 2008;24:875-878.

9. Durrie DS, Kezirian GM. Femtosecond laser versus mechanical keratome flaps in wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis: a prospective contralateral eye study. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005;31:120-126.

10. Tanna M, Schallhorn SC, Hettinger KA. Femtosecond laser versus mechanical microkeratome: a retrospective comparison of visual outcomes at 3 months. J Refract Surg. 2009;25:S668-S671.

11.Montes-Mico R, Rodriguez-Galietero A, Alio JL. Femtosecond laser versus mechanical keratome LASIK for myopia. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:62-68.

12. Tran DB, Sarayba MA, Bor Z, Garufis G, et al. Randomized prospective clinical study comparing induced aberrations with IntraLase and Hansatome flap creation in fellow eyes. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005;31:97-105.

13. Lim T, Yang S, Kim MJ, Tchah H. Comparison of the IntraLase femtosecond laser and mechanical microkeratome for laser in situ keratomileusis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141:833-839.

14. Barequet IS, Hirsh A, Levinger S. Effect of thin femtosecond LASIK flaps on corneal sensitivity and tear function. J Refract Surg. 2008;24:897-902.

Raymond Stein MD Video – Toronto LASER Eye Surgery- Bochner Eye Institute

Wednesday, October 20th, 2010
Raymond Stein MD - View video click here

Raymond Stein MD - View video click here

To learn more, watch a video about Dr. Raymond Stein

Raymond Stein talks about his past 20 years of Laser Vision Correction- As seen in EyeWorld

Wednesday, October 20th, 2010

“Over the past 20 years at the Bochner Eye Institute, every day has been an exciting day for our patients, our staff, and our surgeons. Patients’ lives are enhanced with a painless, quick, and safe procedure. The most common regret that patients tell us is they wish they had the surgery when they were younger. Today patients who have laser surgery range in age from 18-65 years. In the early days of laser vision correction, it was primarily the risk takers who underwent the procedure. Skydivers, bungee jumpers, and motorcycle riders were commonplace. Today I see a high percentage of chess players, actuaries, accountants, and surgeons who are undergoing the procedure. Many patients don’t have any specific problems with their glasses or contact lenses but want to be free to live their life without any optical aids.” from EyeWorld

Raymond Stein as seen in EyeWorld

Raymond Stein MD as seen in EyeWorld at recent ASCRS meeting in Chicago

More about Raymond Stein

Lasik in Toronto Reviews Bochner Eye Insitute

Lasik in Toronto
40 Prince Arthur Avenue
Toronto, ON M5R 1A9
(416) 960-2020