Archive for the ‘Published Articles by Raymond Stein MD’ Category

Dr Raymond Stein’s patients share their appreciation

Friday, June 22nd, 2012

Dr Raymond Stein, Medical Director at the prestigious Bochner Eye Institute shares some of the feedback from his patients.

Celebrity Vision Correction Surgery performed by Dr Raymond Stein.

Tuesday, January 31st, 2012

Serena Ryder, Canada’s celebrity singer-songwriter, Juno award winner (2008, 2009, 2010) underwent successful vision correction surgery by Dr Raymond Stein at the Bochner Eye Institute.

See what Dr Raymond Stein patients are saying

Background of Raymond Stein

Thursday, May 5th, 2011

Dr. Raymond Stein, MD, FRCSC, is an esteemed global leader in refractive surgery who has successfully performed more than 80,000 vision correction procedures. He obtained his medical degree at the University of Toronto Medical School, where he currently serves as an Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology. Dr. Stein completed his ophthalmology residency at the world-renowned Mayo Clinic and a cornea and external disease fellowship at the prestigious Willis Eye Hospital in Philadelphia. He serves as the Medical Director of the renowned Bochner Eye Institute in Toronto.

Raymond Stein has established himself as an expert and pioneer in refractive and implant surgery and was the first surgeon in all of Canada to perform corneal cross linking with Riboflavin for keratoconus and ectasia. He was also the first eye surgeon in Canada to implant the ReSTOR and Tetraflex IOLs for improved distance, intermediate and near vision. Dr. Stein was the first surgeon in Canada to use the IntraLase IFS femtosecond laser for creation of the LASIK corneal flap.

Dr. Raymond Stein is frequently invited to lecture at medical conferences throughout the world. He has authored numerous published articles, more than 15 book chapters and books on various subjects pertaining to refractive surgery. In fact, Dr. Stein is the author of the first clinical textbook on laser vision correction for instruction on advanced surgical techniques.

As a testament to his prolific career and unsurpassed surgical skills, Dr. Stein was chosen to serve at the Chief Eye Surgeon for W Network’s Style by Jury, a popular makeover television show in Canada. He is also the editor of the prestigious scientific journal Clinical and Surgical Ophthalmology.

In recognition of his accomplishments in refractive surgery, Dr. Stein has been honored with numerous prestigious awards from both national and international professional organizations, including the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the International Intraocular Implant Club and the Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists. He has also served as the President of prestigious Canadian Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery.
Dr. Stein is the Chief of Ophthalmology at the Scarborough Hospital in Toronto and Cornea Consultant at the Mount Sinai Hospital



University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School



Medical School:

Doctor of Medicine

University of Toronto Medical School




Mayo Clinic

1983 -1986


Fellowship Training:

Willis Eye Hospital, Philadelphia



Bochner Eye Institute

Medical Director, Eye Surgeon

1997- Present


Scarborough Hospital, Toronto

Chief of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmologist

1987- Present


Mount Sinai Hospital

Cornea Consultant, Ophthalmologist

1989 – Present


University of Toronto Medical School

Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology

Professional Affiliations:

Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists

Wills Eye Hospital Alumni Association
American Academy of Ophthalmology

Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons
Mayo Clinic Alumni Association

Ontario Medical Association

International Society of Refractive Surgery

American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Canadian Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery

International Implant Club

Academy of Ophthalmic Education

Raymond Stein, MD, Honors and Awards:

1987 – 1988 Award for most outstanding article of the year published in the University of Toronto Medical Journal, titles Lifesaving Ocular Signs.

1990- 1991 Award for outstanding teaching, Ophthalmology Residents Research Day, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, April 1991.

1991 – 1992 Nominated for Atkinson award, outstanding undergraduate teaching, University of Toronto.

1993 – 1994 Award for outstanding undergraduate and post graduate teaching, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto.

1997 Honor award of American Academy of Ophthalmology

1997 Honor award of Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists

Best paper of session, American Society of Cataract and Refractive Society

2001 Awarded membership into International Intraocular Club

2003 Best paper of session, International Society of Refractive Surgery


1. Raymond M. Stein, Bernard J. Slatt, Harold A. Stein. A Premier in Ophthalmology: A Textbook for Students. Mosby.

2. Raymond M. Stein, Melvin I. Freeman, Harold A. Stein. The Ophthalmic Assistant: A Text for Allied and Associated Ophthalmic Personnel. Mosby, 2006.

3. Raymond Stein, Harold A. Stein, Melvin I. Freeman, Lynn D. Maund. Residents Contact Lens Curriculum Manual. Mosby.

4. Raymond Stein, Harold A. Stein, Melvin I. Freeman, Lynn D. Maund. Contact Lenses: Fundamentals and Clinical Use. Slack Incorporated, 1996.

5. Raymond Stein, Bernard J. Slatt, Harold A. Stein, Melvin I. Freeman. Fitting Guide for Rigid and Soft Contact Lenses: A Practical Approach. Mosby, 2002. 

6. Raymond Stein, Harold A. Stein, Albert Cheskes. Laser Vision Correction: Welcome to a World Without Glasses or Contact Lenses.

7. Raymond Stein, Harold A. Stein. Management of Ocular Emergencies. Medic International.

8. Raymond Stein, Bernard J. Slatt, Harold A. Stein. Ophthalmic Terminology: Speller and Vocabulary Builder. Mosby, 1991.

9. Editor. Raymond M. Stein. Proceedings of the External Eye Meeting. Medic International, 1995.

10. Raymond M. Stein, Harold A. Stein, Albert Cheskes. The Excimer Fundamentals and Clinical Use. Slack Incorporated, 1997.

Peer-Reviewed Research Papers and Articles:

1. Raymond M. Stein. Laser vision correction: 20 years of personal experience. ASCRS EyeWorld.

2. Raymond M. Stein. Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking with Riboflavin (C3-R) and other Surgical Options in the Management of Keratoconus. Academy of Ophthalmic Education (AOE).

3. Raymond M. Stein. Ten Pearls for Treating Hyperopic Astigmatism. Refractive Eyecare for Ophthalmologists.

4. Raymond Stein. Techniques for Advanced Surface Ablation. Refractive Eyecare for Ophthalmologists.

5. Raymond M. Stein. Phakic Implants Can Expand a Refractive Surgery Practice. Refractive Eyecare for Ophthalmologists.

6. Raymond M. Stein. Patients to Avoid Personality Screening. Refractive Eyecare for Ophthalmologists.

7. Raymond M. Stein. Keratoma-Assisted ASA. Refractive Eyecare for Ophthalmologists.

8. Raymond M. Stein. Defining Safety in Keratome Technology. Refractive Eyecare for Ophthalmologists.

9. Raymond M. Stein. Clinical Experience with the Allegretto Wave in Custom and Standard Treatments. Refractive Eyecare for Ophthalmologists.

10. Raymond M. Stein. Advances in Refractive Surgery. Ophthalmology Rounds.

Raymond Stein Reviews

Dr Raymond Stein presented his outcomes of Corneal Cross-linking at the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO)

Monday, November 8th, 2010

Dr Raymond Stein presented his outcomes of Corneal Cross-linking at the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) in Chicago on Oct 19, 2010. The AAO is the largest ophthalmological meeting in the world with an attendance of over 20,000. Dr Raymond Stein in Toronto is considered the most experienced surgeon with cross-linking in North America having treated over 1,500 eyes with keratoconus.



Laser Vision Correction: A New Age

Monday, June 28th, 2010

Raymond Stein, MD, FRCSC

raymond-stein-torontoIf you wear contact lenses or glasses imagine waking up to a life of clear vision. The ability to drive, walk, run, go to the theater, participate in sports, all without any optical aids. There are practical reasons such as improved peripheral vision compared to glasses (especially important when driving) or improved safety compared to contact lenses with a lower risk of corneal infections. The United States military has encouraged laser vision correction for its combat soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan to enhance visual performance.

My grandfather Dr Maxwell Bochner founded the Bochner Eye Institute in 1929. This past year we celebrated our 80th anniversary as one of the oldest private eye-care facilities in North America. Our goal has always been to provide the best possible care delivered in a kind and compassionate way. In the modern era of high technology we feel it is especially important to carry on the tradition of Dr Bochner of caring for the individual patient.

We have been performing laser eye surgery for the past 19 years at the Bochner Eye Institute. Everyday is an exciting day for our patients, our staff, and our surgeons. Patients’ lives are enhanced with a painless, quick, and safe procedure. The most common regret that patients tell us is they wish they had the surgery when they were younger. Today patients range in age from 18 to 65 years of age that have laser surgery.

Some patients want to join the police force or become a firefighter and need a certain level of vision without glasses or contacts. Some patients are unable to wear contact lenses because of dryness or solution reactions. Today many patients are not having any specific problems with their glasses or contact lenses but want to be free to live their life without any optical aids.

Many patients ask me if eye doctors are undergoing laser eye surgery. The percentage of eye doctors that have undergone the procedure is greater than that in the general population. In fact, there have been over 400 eye doctors that have come to the Bochner Eye Institute to have their own eyes treated. Eye doctors have travelled to the Bochner Eye Institute from as far away as Australia, Italy, and India.

Are you a candidate for laser vision correction? All patients need to have a detailed eye evaluation to make sure they are excellent candidates. This comprehensive examination consists of a computerized assessment of vision, a mapping of the corneal surface and thickness, a measurement of the quality and quantity of the tear film, and an evaluation of the intraocular health. At the Bochner Eye Institute we offer an assessment and informative consultation on the procedure, at no charge.

Not all patients are satisfactory candidates for laser eye surgery. In some cases patients may have relatively thin corneas or extremely high prescriptions. At the Bochner Eye Institute we offer all the surgical options for vision correction. In some situations patients can be helped with other procedures such as a refractive lens exchange (replacement of the patient’s lens with an implant), or a phakic implant (insertion of a thin implant in front of the patient’s lens).

bochner-eye-institute-torontoAll surgery is done at the Bochner Eye Institute. The Institute is in a historical building in the Yorkville area in Toronto. There are four floors that houses advanced technology and a dedicated and highly trained staff. In addition to excimer lasers from Germany and California, there are two operating rooms for intraocular surgery. The Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons have approved the Institute’s operating rooms.

The most advanced technique of LASIK utilizes a femtosecond laser to create a thin flap of tissue. This is a revolutionary technique that offers an unparalleled method of accuracy and safety. Patients feel a slight amount of pressure but no pain. The second part of the procedure is the reshaping of the cornea with the excimer laser. The LASIK flap is gently lifted and the laser is activated to remove a precise amount of tissue on the underlying bed. Usually less than the thickness of a hair is removed. The flap is repositioned over the bed and it adheres in a few minutes. This painless and quick procedure allows for the correction of nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism.

Patients are often concerned that if they move their eye during the procedure it could affect the outcome. Fortunately the most sophisticated lasers are equipped with accurate eye trackers that monitor the position of the eye and allow the laser pulses to be delivered to the right spot ensuring an excellent outcome.

Following LASIK eye surgery 99% of patients can drive without glasses the next day. 1% of patients may take a few extra days. Patients are also happy that they can resume their normal activities so quickly after the procedure. The majority of patients report that their vision during the day or at night without glasses, is better than what they previously experienced with the best pair of contact lenses or glasses.

If Dr. Bochner were alive today he would be proud of the continued tradition of excellence in patient care and innovation. The surgeons of the Institute have published over 35 textbooks to educate eye doctors, family doctors, and patients about a variety of eye disorders and treatments. The surgeons have also received prestigious awards from International and local organizations to recognize their leading accomplishments. I am proud of our history and look forward to the continued tradition of innovation and excellence in patient care. More about Raymond Stein

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Dr Stein Toronto was featured on the TV show Style by Jury -Episode 147 Buffy the Dog Groomer (Buffy)

Tuesday, March 30th, 2010

Epithelial Basement Membrane Dystrophy (EBMD)

Wednesday, January 20th, 2010

Dr. Raymond Stein, in the article below, discusses epithelial basement membrane dystrophy that can hinder an individual’s vision. Along with the team at Bochner Eye Institute, Raymond Stein, MD, believes that patient education is important to rewarding eye care. For additional information about other eye care topics, please visit the other pages on this site.

EBMD is a common hereditary corneal dystrophy that may lead to recurrent corneal erosions and/or blurred vision. Clinical epithelial signs include fingerprint lines, map-like changes or microcysts. If the corneal signs are subtle, it is valuable to instill fluorescein and view with a Cobalt-blue light. With EBMD the epithelium is irregular and the tear breakup is often abnormal.

If patients have recurrent erosions and they are refractory to hypertonic solutions, (Muro 128 5% drops and/or ointment) then a keratectomy can be performed. This procedure involves debridement of the corneal epithelium and polishing of Bowman’s layer with a diamond burr. With this technique, 85 percent of eyes will have resolution of their erosions. The procedure can be repeated if necessary.

If patients have glare, halos, or reduced vision secondary to EBMD then a keratectomy is the best treatment option. The epithelium that grows back is usually smoother resulting in improved vision. Best vision is achieved within four to six weeks following the procedure.

To learn more about Raymond Stein and the skilled vision professionals at Bochner Eye Institute, visit or call 416-960-2020.

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Femtosecond Laser versus Microkeratome for LASIK

Wednesday, January 20th, 2010

Dr. Raymond Stein believes that patient safety and satisfaction are paramount during a LASIK procedure. In the article below, Raymond Stein, MD, discusses the benefits of femtosecond laser technology and why you should select a surgeon who uses this technology instead ofthe traditional microkeratome.

Femtosecond laser technology, used to create the corneal flap during LASIK, is much safer and more predictable than microkeratome, which uses a metal blade. This is in part due to the shape of the laser flap, which allows us to create an evenly thick corneal flap, whereas the blade often creates a miscues flap that is thinner in the center and much thicker in the periphery. This can lead to one of the most dreaded LASIK complications, also known as the button-hole. It can result in loss of best-corrected vision from irregular astigmatism. When we first acquired the Femtosecond laser more than three years ago, we initially planned on offering both blade technologies. However, after discovering the benefits of the Femtosecond laser, we quickly sold the microkeratome. This is why we feel strongly about informing all prospective laser patients that the Femtosecond laser provides the safest technology with the best outcomes.

Why would laser centers today still offer inferior technology? The answer is very clear cost. The purchase of a Femtosecond laser costs about $500,000, then there is an annual maintenance fee of approximately $70,000 and a disposable cost (suction ring) of $200 per eye. A microkeratome can be purchased for $35,000 or less, there are no annual maintenance fees and the cost of a blade is around $50 for both eyes. So you can see that significant saving are associated with inferior technology, which is why most laser eye centers still utilize the microkeratome.

Femtosecond technology continues to advance. At the Bochner Eye Institute we acquired the first IFS laser in Canada, which has a speed of 150 KHz. This is 2.5 times faster than the previous laser technology. This results in the suction ring being on the eye for less time, which leads to a more comfortable experience for the patient. In addition, the new technology can create a flap edge greater than 100 degrees. This leads to a more stable flap position, like a man-hole cover, which lowers the risk of epithelial ingrowth.

At the Bochner Eye Institute we continue to treat a significant number of eye-care professionals from across Canada and the United States. We feel this is because eye doctors understand leading edge technology and trust our surgical techniques and abilities.

To learn more about Raymond Stein and the team at Bochner Eye Institute, please visit or call 416-960-2020.

See Raymond Stein Toronto on Style By Jury.

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Dr. Raymond Stein on Salzman’s Nodular Degeneration

Wednesday, January 20th, 2010

Dr. Raymond Stein is a distinguished ophthalmologist at the Bochner Eye Institute. He has performed more than 80,000 vision surgeries and is the Chief of Ophthalmology at the Scarborough Hospital in Toronto. Below, Raymond Stein, MD, discusses Salzman’s nodular degeneration and how it can be treated.

Scar-like tissue, referred to as Salzman’s nodular degeneration, of the superficial cornea can be seen in the midperiphery or periphery. This corneal degeneration can result in a decrease of best-corrected acuity and lead to secondary to irregular astigmatism. Computerized topography can be used to confirm the induced corneal astigmatism.

The treatment is relatively easy for patients with a superficial keratectomy. Under topical anesthesia the superficial scar-like tissue can be gently peeled away from Bowman’s layer. A bandage soft contact lens is inserted and worn until the epithelium regenerates which is typically three to five days. An antibiotic and steroid are prescribed for one week. Best-corrected vision is usually improved within four to six weeks, at which time new eyewear can be prescribed.

To learn more about Raymond Stein, please visit or call 416-960-2020 today.

Raymond Stein On Style By Jury

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Pterygium Surgery by Dr. Raymond Stein

Monday, August 10th, 2009

A pterygium is a benign growth of the conjunctiva that grows onto the cornea. The etiology of this growth is thought to be related to UV light exposure and/or wind. A pterygium can be of cosmetic concern and/or result in diminished vision because of the induction of irregular astigmatism. Over the past 15 years I have utilized a technique of removal combined with a topical agent called Mitomycin C. This is a chemotherapeutic medication that dramatically reduces the recurrence rate. After the growth is removed under local anesthesia, Mitomycin C is applied to the area for 1 minute. This medication inhibits tissue growth which accounts for the low recurrence rate. Previous methods of removal were associated with a 50% recurrence rate. The technique I have used is associated with a 95% success rate. Patients with a recurrence can have additional surgery with a high chance of success.